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- Market & Organizations
- Special issue: Journal of Innovation Economics & Management
- Collection Business & Innovation, Peter Lang
Book following the 2014 Innovation Day. Send your paper to firstname.lastname@example.org before September 30, 2014.
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September 2014, “Crisis, innovation and transition”, by Nadine Levratto*
Since the collapse of Lehman Brothers in September 2008, the crisis faced by OECD economies is presented as the result of a full-blown financial disruption which would have been diffused in the whole of the economy. This priority given to the debt, to the interest rates and to the financial regulation in the crisis generates a salutary reflection on the excesses to which led the almost unbounded financialization of our economies. It however results in undervaluing the productive and organizational causes of this turndown as ifthe real economy was only the reflection of the financial economy, an idea in contradiction with the most (neo-)classical political economy.
However, this exclusive responsibility for finance does not resist to a closer look. Firstly because the performances of the companies began cooling before 2007, secondly because the increase in the number of corporate bankruptcies preceded the boom in bank failures, and, finally, because in many countries, the deterioration of the labor market, the freeze in salaries and the increase in inequalities fed the financial innovations’ movement intended to facilitate the household consumption. The famous subprimes are emblematic of these products.
If the turmoil of the productive sphere preceded the financial storm another reading of the crisis is possible. It rests on the idea that the strategies of cost cutting adopted by a majority of companies did not make it possible to strengthen growth and competitiveness. The social contribution exemptions in favor of low-qualified workers which relayed them did not permit to reduce unemployment rate neither.
Some voices are being raised to stress the importance of non-price competitiveness related to product quality, to innovation, and adaptation to the buyers’ needs, etc. Their current reach remains, however, limited. Indeed, in this field France is still far from the idealized German economic model: in France, R&D expenses reach only 2.1 % of GDP against 2.8 % in Germany. This differential is even clearer when one considers R&D expenditure in the private sector which, in 2008, reached Euros 31 billion in Germany compared with 15 in France. Innovation is however an engine of the companies’ performance as shown by the respective evolution of the total factors productivity which decreased by 2 points between 1999 (base 100) and 2012 whereas, in parallel, it increased by 8 points in Germany.
The specialization of the French industrial model in a medium quality level of goods made the French companies more vulnerable to the changes in price than German ones which are partially freed from the constraints of cost by a positioning on top-of-the-range and innovative market segments. As shown by Salais and Storper in their reference book “Worlds of Production”, coordination between actors taking place on these markets rests upon quality more than on prices.
The fall of the gross margin rate is not enough to justify the degradation of the position of the French companies as regards innovation. On one hand, the rise in the gross margin rate between 1994 and 2002 was not accompanied by an increase in the R&D expenditures and, on the other hand, it did not prevent the growing level of dividends over the last decade. On the whole, the R&D expenditures which accounted for 44% of the dividends in 1992, account only for 25% nowadays.
The transition to which the crisis invites cannot be generated by prolonging or reinforcing the old productive models and public policies instruments. The incentive given to any kind of innovation cannot be limited to the implementation of a research tax credit whose cost is out of control. The energy transition, the advent of a sober economy based on the principles of sustainability and mutual solidarity, the short circuits and the development of localized ecosystems make it possible to limit external pressures while reducing the ecological print. The development of these new areas calls a radical transformation of the companies, of the inter-enterprises relations, of the link between firms and territories as well as of the definition of a favorable legal framework.
Last but not least, the transition requires a strategy of productive and institutional innovation which makes it possible departing from an old economic model and going towards a new economy.
*EconomiX, CNRS-Université de Paris Ouest, Nanterre, La Défense, Centre d’Etudes de l’Emploi
Innovation Forum VI 2014: http://cit2014.sciencesconf.org/
|Science and Innovation
Editeur: De Boeck Supérieur
|La Chine innove. Politiques publiques et stratégies d’entreprise
Marché et Organisations
|Jean-Baptiste Say et la libération des forces de production
Innovations. Revue d’Economie et de Management de l’Innovation
Editeur: De Boeck Supérieur
|Services et environnement. Les enjeux énergétiques de l’innovation dans les services
Collection: Business and Innovation - volume 10
Année de publication: 2014
|Beyond the Systemic Crisis and Capital-Led Chaos. Theoretical and Applied Studies
Rémy Herrera, Wim Dierckxsens, Paulo Nakatani (dir.)
Collection: Business and Innovation - volume 09
Année de publication: 2014
|Innover ou périr. Paroles d’experts
Laurice Alexandre-Leclair, Florin Paun, Ingrid Vaileanu-Paun
Préface de Dimitri Uzunidis
L’Esprit Économique - Economie et Innovation
Special issue: Journal of Innovation Economics & Management
- Deadline for submission: 15 October 2014
- Deadline for submission: 1 September 2014
There will be 2 issues: 1 in English & 1 in French. Pour télécharger l’appel à communications pour la revue Innovations. Revue d’économie et de management de l’innovation : http://rrifr.univ-littoral.fr/?p=27
Coordinated by Laurice Alexandre-Leclair
- Deadline for submissio: March31, 2015
Organized by EPSECG Oran in partnership with AIG and in collaboration with the Laboratory for Research on the Euro-Mediterranean Economies (LAREME) at the University of Oran
- Date: December 1 & 2, 2014
- Place: Oran, Algeria
Lyon, 1er et 2 avril 2015
- Date limite de soumission : 1er novembre 2014 à email@example.com
Colloque GSISC, Nice, 6th February, 2015
- Submission of abstract: 15th October, 2014 (Abstract must be addressed to: firstname.lastname@example.org and email@example.com)
For more information about the workshop and publication: Download the call for papers
Date: November 20, 21 et 22, 2014
Place: Faculté des Sciences Juridiques Economiques et Sociales Kénitra, Maroc
- September 30 2014: Deadline to submit papers (less then 10 pages) by email to firstname.lastname@example.org
Contact: Faculté des Sciences Juridiques Economiques et Sociales Kénitra, Campus universitaire Maamora BP: 2010, Kénitra, Maroc.
Tel.: +212 537 329 218, Fax: +212 537 329 218
Website: http://www.univ-ibntofail.ac.ma/; Email: email@example.com
Club of Sophia Forum, 3r edition
Sofia, Bulgaria, October 17-18, 2014