Save the dates!
|December 14, 2015||Climate change: new frontier of innovation?||Cité des sciences et de l’Industrie, Paris|
|February 25-26, 2016||Industrial Innovation Strategies and Dynamics of Sustainable Entrepreneurship – S(i)IDE(d)||Dunkerque|
|March 21, 2016||Spring of Innovation: Smart Territories
||Cité des sciences et de l’Industrie, Paris|
|May 20, 2016||Piloting innovations||Montpellier|
|June 9-11, 2016||20 Years of Innovations – Trajetories’ Dynamic||Cité des sciences et de l’Industrie, Paris|
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Special issue: Journal of Innovation Economics & Management
- Submission of abstract: November 30, 2015
- Submission of full paper: October 30, 2015
There will be 2 issues: 1 in English & 1 in French. Pour télécharger l’appel à communications pour la revue Innovations. Revue d’économie et de management de l’innovation : http://rrifr.univ-littoral.fr/?p=27
« Entrepreneurial creativity », by Thierry Burger-Helmchen*
To make a good entrepreneur:
take the same quantity of innovation and creativity,
add a small amount of audacity,
a touch of leardership,
a great amount of courage,
mix the whole.
Can be consumed during the whole year.
Creativity and innovation are mentioned as ingredients of entrepreneurship since the works of Schumpeter. Before these works the entrepreneur was depicted as an investor, somebody who takes chances, who merges contradictions. Today, to say that an entrepreneur is a creative is almost a commonplace.
Since Schumpeter many researchers tried to identify the specific relations between creativity and entrepreneurship. The entrepreneurs are creators, but this creation is not necessarily ex nihilo, it can come from an innovating recombination of preexistent resources. The creativity of the entrepreneurs is function of the particular circumstances in which he evolves and of his personality. In the creative mind, intuition, experience, environmental constraints are merged together.
Rarely the launch of a new venture is endowed with an abundance of resources; scarcity would better describe the situation. Therefore, the entrepreneurial situation is characterized by challenges and constrains, limited credibility to convince the bankers, an unknown new product or service and no systems or organizational routines to manage the many activities necessary in the new company. The entrepreneurial situation is thus characterized by a series of tensions and of paradoxes.
Paradoxically, the entrepreneur must concentrate on what is critical, without neglecting all the rest.
Paradoxically, he must combine creativity and familiarity; he must be creative to attract attention and he must use characteristics of the old products and services to prevent rejection.
Paradoxically, the entrepreneur must be able to mix divergent and convergent processes: divergent to generate a new idea, convergent to successfully implement the idea collectively.
Thus, the entrepreneurs have to live with paradoxes in terms of internal and external processes. Therefore it is not astonishing that they must be creative in almost everything they do. Their capacity of innovation is not limited to the product, or the production process, or the comprehension of the market, neither with the presentation of the offer and the organization of the industry, like Schumpeter proposed in the beginning. Their creative capacity covers other related fields such as the staff management, the organization of the company, its culture, the research and the development…
The creative process of the entrepreneur depends mainly on his past experiences; they are the main source of new knowledge. The entrepreneurial creativity rises from a process in four stages: the past experience, the reflection, the conceptualization and the future experimentation.
The experience of work in a precise field is an important stimulus for the entrepreneur because it enables him to identify the market opportunities than he can exploit according to its own capacities and current resources. Thus, the entrepreneurial creativity must be regarded as resulting from the interaction from knowledge deriving from past experience, competences of the individual, and his perception of the future changes of the environment.
There is a sharp debate on entrepreneurial idea generation, on the identification of the business opportunities, is it a conscious process or not? Kirzner (1979) tried to describe this process, for him entrepreneurial alertness consists in the capacity to notice, without specific research efforts, the possibilities that have been neglected before. This description implies that the process is unconscious. Other research observed that the identification of opportunities by the entrepreneurs is based on their intuition rather than formal analysis. In the two approaches the entrepreneurs have only partial influence on opportunity identification process. Many works showed that creative entrepreneurs tend to make important decisions on the basis of their intuition, their instinct rather than based on rational scientific analysis. In other words, they count more on their “intuitions” supported by their perception of the global environment that on conclusions supported by analytical data. This would imply that entrepreneurial decision making comes more from the “right side of the brain”, which is the source of creative ideas.
However, even if most of the entrepreneurial creativity occurs effortlessly, the formal techniques of creativity that help individuals to generate business ideas have some utility. They are particularly useful on the people who block the creative ideas within an organization.
The special issues of Innovations and of the Journal of Innovation Economics and Management gather several works on the entrepreneurial creativity, how they emerge and evolve in different environments, what foster or discourage the development of the creative ideas.
* BETA-CNRS, Faculté des Sciences Economiques et de gestion, Université de Strasbourg
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